Many are familiar with the comic book hero DC Flash, who is faster than the bullet and is considered the fastest hero of the comic universe.
In addition, Barry Allen Also a scientist, so why not assess his ability on the part of science and see how real they are and whether or not they contradict physics. It turns out that the scientific world has long recognized the possibility of slowing down time and even conducts experiments with it.
If, for example, I say: "This train arrives at 7 o'clock," then I have
In view of the following: "The indication of a small arrow of mine
Hours for 7 and the arrival of the train will be simultaneous events. "
It was with these words that Albert Einstein began to introduce into physics the concepts of space and time, without which he could not create the theory of relativity.
In his article published on June 30, 1905, Einstein begins to explain the concept of time on the fingers using simple examples . Perhaps it looks absurd, but it could not be otherwise – it was necessary for him to destroy the shackles of reason limiting the thinking of his fellow physicists.
So what is the time – Newton did not explain and Einstein did not explain, but he could explain Its relativity and make it clear that everything is not as unambiguous as previously thought.
Try to remember your perception of time in childhood, when it was not yet absolute for you. Do you remember how it stretches in line, and how quickly it flies for interesting pursuits.
What Einstein said about this:
"When you sit with a beautiful girl for two hours, they seem to you a minute , But if you sit on a hot oven for at least a minute, it will seem that two hours have passed. "
So, on simple examples with small clock hands and a hot frying pan, the genius of the 20th century will lay the theory of relativity in his article "Toward the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies," and 10 years later he developed it, explaining the principles of work of gravity and its nature.
But where is the relativity? To do this, let's stop for a minute and answer one question: "What is my speed now?"
"Zero" you will answer and you will be right if you sit or stand, but at the same time the correct answer will be "1679 km / h" if we imagine that you are in the area of the mouth of the Amazon, because this is the speed of rotation of the earth around the equator.
But remember the speed of the Earth's rotation around the Sun, and 30 km / The right answer.
This is all relativity – it all depends on your learning platform, or how its names
Your frame of reference (CO) can be anything – a chair, a floor, the Earth or the plane in which you fly, or maybe our galaxy or the Universe.
Everything is relative and in this essence.
Everything is so relative that even the speed of the flow of time will depend on the chosen frame of reference. And this means that there is no absolute concept of time and two ticks of hours can mean a completely different amount of time.
Perhaps you read and studied other books on the theory of relativity and met with confusing notions of "dissenting observers" who move with Different speeds, and therefore they have different perceptions of time, and because they do not agree with each other, but it does not matter. Observers do not agree with each other only in the degree of error about the speed of the aircraft, but they know that the speed is relative and its value will depend on the chosen reference frame.
The main highlight of the general theory of relativity – all observers agree With a friend.
"The permanence of memory" Salvador Dali, 1931
With the help of the theory of relativity, Einstein proved that time will vary depending on the chosen frame of reference, and this or that action will take a different amount of time.
At relatively low speeds (up to 1,500,000 km / h), this difference will be insignificant, But the closer to the speed of light, the more time will be the runaway.
Let's take an example: you are on a spaceship that moves at a speed of 97% of the speed of light. For reference points, let's take two – a spaceship and Earth, and remember about observers who agree with each other.
So, being on the ship, the interval between your two birthdays will be one year, but on earth – three months . The observer on the ship will say exactly so, and the observer on Earth will agree with him. But what kind of reference system should we take as the base, in which of them are we. The correct answer: in all at once.
Yes, you are in all the reference frames at once – Earth, airplane, outer space and many others. These systems are necessary for one – to determine the movement of bodies in relation to them. So, if your speed on the Earth is zero, then this reference frame will be called your own.
For example, with respect to your own reference frame of the Sun, we are moving at a speed of 29 km / s, while on Earth circling around Of the luminary. Perhaps you are familiar with another explanation of the relativistic slowing down of time: "the clocks in motion seem to be slower than yours", but this is not quite the right explanation.
It does not seem to us that the moving clock is going Slower, they actually go more slowly, but only if we measure the course of their time in our frame of reference. At the same time, in their own frame of reference they will go faster than in ours, and this is not a paradox or a contradiction. Or a contradiction, but not more than the speed of a person in an airplane, which is both 0 km / h and 900 km / h. While all observers will agree with these answers.
The relativity of time is easily measurable in experimental physics. Experimental scientists working with radioactive elementary particles (pions, muons and hyperons) collide with it constantly.
The radioactive particles have a half-life and differ in different elements.
For example, in uranium the period Half-life – 4.5 billion years, and the radioactive isotope of carbon – 5,700 years. So in tritium, which is used in some luminous clock hands in a mixture with phosphorus, a half-life of 13 years, and that's why in 13 years the arrows begin to glow half as weakly as before.
Peonies that are studied in experimental physics laboratories , Have a slightly shorter half-life – 26 billionths of a second or 26 nanoseconds in another. Although this seems to be a very short time, but only for humans.
When studying fast-moving pions, their speed was 0.999998 of the speed of light, they conducted an experiment – they were pushed with protons. It turned out that their half-life was 637 times that of pions at rest.
Before the experiments, the relativity of time was an abstract theory, but after that it turned into reality.
Does it mean that moving at a higher speed, time for us will move more slowly? Yes, and this was confirmed in 1971 by Joseph Hafele and Richard Keating with the help of a passenger jet plane and four sets of cesium atomic clocks. Their experiment proved the practical effect of the theory of relativity and the effect of time dilation.
Every day spent on a plane that travels at a speed of 900 km / h will be longer by 29 nanoseconds than the day spent on Earth.
, It seems not so much time, but the higher the speed of movement – the greater the difference. So for GPS satellites, the time delay is 7200 nanoseconds per day, and this will already give an error in positioning at 2.2 kilometers per day. And every day this error will grow by 2.2 kilometers.
Thanks to Einstein's theory of relativity, calculations were made, and this error is taken into account in calculating the location. While flying on airplanes, you will live longer in relation to the terrestrial reference system, but you will not feel this effect on yourself – your time will slow down, but at the same time your heartbeat and brain activity slows down. Here it is – an amazing property of relativism. Everything will be slower, because the speed of the time itself changes.
It turns out that Flash can slow down time, but only with respect to its own frame of reference in relation to the terrestrial. It turns out that the abilities of Barry Allen, who is also Flash, do not contradict the laws of physics, and therefore can be quite real.
On this today everything, even more about the riddle of time, you can learn by reading the source.
Beware of lightning, respect physics and read smart books!
Author: Richard Muller
Now. The physics of time
Publisher: Mann, Ivanov i Ferber