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Forgotten between Tsiolkovsky and Korolev / SurprizingFacts

August 23 marks the 130th anniversary of the birth of Friedrich Zander. There will be no big celebrations – Friedrich Arturovich died in 1933, he managed to take part only at the very beginning of the Soviet space-rocket industry. Alas, not all pioneers and enthusiasts could see the realization of their dreams. But remembering their work is useful and correct.




The house where he spent his childhood Zander, photo Smig / Wikipedia

Friedrich Arturovich Zander was born in 23 (11 old style) August 1887 in Riga to the family of the intelligentsia. Father was a descendant of a merchant family and worked as a doctor, his mother came from a musician's family. Frederick was the fourth child. When he was two years old, his mother died during childbirth. My father married a second time, but actively participated in the upbringing of children. Zander wrote in his autobiography:

Ever since I was a child I liked to stand by the window and look at the stars in the dark winter evenings. My father was a great lover of natural science, for several years he worked actively in the museum, in which he showed us stuffed birds and animals of all kinds, as well as skeletons and parts of fossil antediluvian animals and meteoric stones fallen from the sky.
In 1894, when I was seven years old, he traveled to Baku and the Transcaspian region and brought back all kinds of crabs, lizards, lizards, turtles, snakes, etc. We, the children, of course, strongly took it all in. At the same time, we were told about what the stars, the moon and the planets represent, and added that there you can find new animals, a more bizarre shape. The children hear only half of what was said, so I, I remember, was very upset and even cried when they told me that it was still impossible to fly there.

Father's comrades were sailors, Friedrich was in the nautical school, met there With navigation devices and became interested in astronomy. His father had a large library in which Zander most loved Jules Verne – "From Earth to the Moon" and "Around the Moon". In general, it should be noted that Jules Verne noted in the biographies of many pioneers of rocket technology, his books, even after thirty years, finally awaited a generation that began to embody the dreams of space travel.

In 1896 Friedrich was identified as a private preparatory School. Personal abilities and the help of the father have allowed to study the three-year program for two years. In 1898, Zander enrolled in the first class of the Riga City Real School (the closest modern analogy is the College of Technical Sciences).

The stories about the flights of G. Lilienthal in Germany and the high-flying kites launched by the father excited me early The question: can I myself be able to seek a flight to other planets?
In the last class of the school before the winter holidays our teacher read to us part of the article written by K.E. Tsiolkovsky in 1903, entitled "Exploration of the world spaces by reactive devices"

In 1905 Zander graduated from the school as the best graduate and, according to the privilege granted to the first graduate, was enrolled in the mechanical department of the Riga Polytechnic Institute. Alas, frightened by the revolution of 1905, the administration temporarily closes the institute, and Zander leaves for Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland), where he is a student at the Higher Technical School in the machine-building department. In 1907, the institute was reopened, and Zander returned to the "alma mater", where he studied until 1914.

In parallel with his studies in 1908, he participates in the activities of the First Riga Aeronautics and Flight Engineering Society, where he builds gliders And propagates the idea of ​​flying on apparatus heavier than air.


1908, a glider built by society, Zander left

September 18, 1908 Zander starts a special notebook "Space (ethereal) ships that will provide communication between the stars. Movement in the world space, "which regularly records calculations and ideas on space topics. Over time, the notebook turns into a unique directory, and if it was published in the 1920s, Zander could gain worldwide fame. Alas, this was not done. Worse, Zander kept the records with a shorthand code, and until now not all the information from the notebook has been deciphered.

In 1909, Zander was overshadowed by the idea of ​​using the spent rocket stages as fuel. The winged vehicles and the idea of ​​burning metal in a rocket engine will be noticeable in all of its subsequent work. Until now, mankind has not reached such a level that in flight to disassemble the previous stage and burn it in the engine of the next stage, but the idea of ​​a non-waste space flight is in principle true.

In the same year, there was a confrontation between Mars. On the wave of public interest, the aeronautics society is actively and successfully engaged in the popularization of astronomy. In 1910 Halley's comet appeared very much in place, and in 1912 a solar eclipse occurred. These events are also used for popularization.

In 1910 Zander invented variants of a space elevator – a station hanging at the point of equal attraction of the Earth and the Moon, or even a connection of Earth and Moon by a cable. But the calculations are inexorable – the best steel of that time will not withstand such loads. Now, by the way, materials have appeared that can be used to build a lunar space elevator, and these are not metals, but Kevlar / Dinema / Aramid, of which slings are made.

In June of the same year, Zander suggested using spacecraft for motion Magnetic field of the Earth. This idea has now been successfully implemented – the magnetic field is used for the orientation of satellites, and accelerated / decelerated experiments are being conducted with reliance on it.

In 1912, Zander independently came up with the idea of ​​discarding the spent rocket stages. I remind you that Tsiolkovsky offered fuel overflow between separate ships. Only in Goddard this idea was fixed earlier (in 1909).

In 1914 Frederick graduated with honors from the institute and took a job at the "Explorer" factory. The diploma with distinction gave wide freedom to choose a specialty, and Zander wanted to work with rubber, because it would have to play a big role "in the manufacture of airtight clothes, etc., necessary for interplanetary travel." In 1915, because of the First World War, the factory was evacuated to Moscow, then, after the revolution, liquidated, but Zander did not return to Riga, "because Moscow with the Khodynka field is the aviation center" . Rejecting slightly to the side, the Khodynka field became an important landmark in the life of not one pioneer of Soviet rocket engineering, with him also was associated B.E. Chertok.

In 1915-1917 Zander conducts experiments with greenhouses of "aviation lightness", studying life support of space vehicles, growing vegetables in charcoal. The archives hold a manuscript for 163 pages with the results of the work, but, alas, again in the stenographic record. In 1917, he conducted experiments with molten metal, studying the possibility of using it in a rocket engine.

In 1919 he got a job at the "Motor" plant. Many papers on the first Soviet aircraft engines store his calculations. Participates in the development of engines M-11, M-15, M-26 and others. In the same year, he devises and sends to the General Directorate of Aviation Plants and the Air Force Directorate the project of an injector aircraft engine operating on liquid oxygen and oil. The injector was invented before him, but the prospect of this type of fuel injection into the cylinder at that time was not obvious. He repeatedly presents reports on the engine, and his experience with liquid oxygen will be very useful to him later.

At the end of 1921 or the beginning of 1922 he meets with Vladimir Lenin and talks with him about interplanetary communications. Zander later noted that he was struck by Lenin's vast horizons and his energy. At least partially under the influence of this meeting Friedrich Arturovich took an annual unpaid leave to work on the project of an interplanetary ship. During the period of work without a salary falls into need, is forced to sell a telescope. Workers of the plant "Motor" of his salary deduct him two months' salary. A year later, in general terms, the project ends and returns to the plant.

The result of work, which has been going on since about 1920, is the project of a winged spaceplane. In dense layers of the atmosphere, he had to use a highly efficient piston engine, rising into thin layers – to switch to rocket. At the dispersal site, the main wings were to be drawn into the body, disassembled and used as fuel. The spaceplane had to have small wings for landing back to Earth. In space, it was proposed to use a solar sail. At each stage of the flight, the most efficient engine would work, and the aerodynamic quality of the apparatus would also be used to the maximum extent.


Appearance of the Zaundera spaceplane

By 1924 the project Was completed, Zander began to make reports, submitted an author's application for an invention, and also published an article in the journal Technique and Life. He participates in a three-day dispute on flights to other worlds.


The poster of the dispute

In the same year he took part in the creation of the Society for Interplanetary Communications.

In 1925-1926, in parallel with the work Zander is engaged in the popularization – visits with lectures Leningrad, Ryazan, Tula, Kharkov, Saratov. Lectures are a great success, after the performance debates begin. Alas, in 1925 the Society for Interplanetary Communications disintegrates.

In 1927, the first World Exhibition of Interplanetary Apparatus and Mechanisms was opened in Moscow. The exhibition was small and budget, but it was more than offset by epic (here more in detail with the photo). To an unprepared man it seemed that the universe was already in his pocket. Alas, the exhibition was presented with mock-ups of projects, which in the vast majority had not yet departed, and until the first satellite was left for thirty years. In the corner of the room was Zander's stand.

By 1928 the design of a composite missile with a number of side blocks with engines and tanks with fuel belongs.

In reality it did not incarnate, but such schemes are often created in the Kerbal Space Program, because they are really effective. When the next time you play in the KSP, remember Zander …

1930 was very important for an engineer, a scientist and a designer. Friedrich Arturovich began work on the first Soviet rocket engine OR-1. Due to budgetary constraints, it was created on the basis of a blowtorch, but possessed all the features of a real rocket engine and developed traction up to 5 kg.


The scheme and appearance of the engine OR-1

The engine worked on gasoline and gaseous air. The nozzle did not specifically have an expanding part for studying combustion processes. In addition to gasoline Zander subsequently experimented with the burning of metals in this engine. Also in the diaries there is information about the use of different experimental nozzles. Due to the fact that the engine used gaseous air, it was sometimes mistakenly assumed that it was not a liquid rocket engine, but an air-jet engine, but the design and test procedure unambiguously say that it was the LRE

The first fire tests Of the engine OR-1 passed on September 18, 1930 and became a great event for the pioneers and enthusiasts of Soviet cosmonautics.

In early 1931, Zander organized a jet engine section at the Air Force Bureau of the Central Council of Osoaviakhim, Turns into the GIRD – Jet Propulsion Study Group. Zander heads the first brigade (engines). The fourth brigade (aircraft constructions) was headed by S.P. Korolyov.

In 1931-32 Tsander, Korolev and Boris Cheranovsky worked on the rocket-plan. Cherantovsky's tailless gliders seemed to be ideally suited for the installation of a rocket engine.


Boris Cheranovsky and Sergey Korolyov near the airframe BBC-8

Already a real OR-2 engine with a design thrust of 50 kilograms, cooling the nozzle with water, and the combustion chamber with gaseous oxygen.

Also Zander worked Over the rocket GIRD-X ("GIRD-ten").


Left – GIRD-09, the first rocket on hybrid fuel (gelatinous solution of rosin with gasoline), right – GIRD-X, the first rocket with liquid rocket engines, photo George Shuklin / Wikipedia

It is to the period of work in the GIRD that anecdotal stories about Tsander's love are regularly cited "On Mars! Forward to Mars! "And tragicomic stories about how much he worked.

The majority of GIRD employees, including Korolev himself, worked in the basement first on a volunteer basis in the evenings. Those who worked in the evening shift came in the morning. That's how designer Andrey Viktorovich Andreev came to the basement one morning and saw Zander sitting over the papers. Noticing Andreev, Friedrich Arturovich asked absentmindedly:
 – What? Is the working day over?
After this, Korolev promulgated an oral order, according to which the last departing brigade leader had the right to leave only with Zander.

Sometimes Zander forgot about the family, about the house. Then he was forcibly dressed in a leather coat with a fur collar and sent home. But even when they escorted us to the tram stop, he somehow crawled back to the basement half an hour later. LK Korneev wrote in his memoirs:

"Seeing that Friedrich Arturovich was very tired and slept as he called, on the run, he was given an" ultimatum ": if he does not immediately go home, everyone will stop working And if he leaves and sleeps, everything will be prepared by morning, and with his arrival tests will begin. No matter how much Zander argued or objected to his departure, the brigade was inexorable. Soon, unnoticed for everyone, Zander disappeared, and the brigade began to work even more intensively. Five or six hours passed, and one of the mechanics, not without solemnity, loudly exclaimed: "Everything is ready, raise the pressure, you give Mars!"

And suddenly all were stupefied. Standing in the depths of the basement, the trestle toppled over with a roar, and ZAander jumped out from there. He rushed all to embrace, and then, laughing, he said that he had settled down behind the trestle and from there was following the work, and since he was bored to sit, he managed to finish a series of calculations and had a great rest. "

But, of course, such hard work could not but affect the health of Zander. In the sanatorium, where he was sent in March 1933, in the first days had time to write: "The doctor found the pain in the heart region in the area of ​​the heart with excitement and nervous tension, general weakness (sometimes falling asleep right behind the desk), sometimes headaches in Frontal and occipital parts. It turned out that Tsander suffered from frequent anginas. " According to other sources

Zander looked very tired, thinner, and sank. In the dining room where they ate, girdovtsy soon noticed that Zander took the cheapest food. Korolev suggested collecting money and secretly from Zander to pay for it ahead. Friedrich Arturovich still paid his 7 kopecks, but he received the dishes for 35 cents. And all could not rejoice: "How much better to feed in our canteen!" EK Moshkin was a vegetarian, gave him meat. Zander took with gratitude. From the dining room in an iron jar with a wire handle he carried porridge in the cellar – for the evening. In one of the drawers of the table he kept some crusts, crackers. Sometimes he put out a box, looked in there and spoke with a smile:
 – The mouse was …
And sometimes with surprise:
 – Oh! Where do I have a meatball here?
Korolyov ordered that in the evening Friedrich Arturovich brought tea and sandwiches.
Korolyov was twenty years younger than Zander, but in life he looked the other way round – he seemed to have cared for him. He vouched for him a ticket to Kislovodsk, to a sanatorium …

In the first days of stay in the sanatorium Tsander felt ill, at first suspected a cold, but the designer becomes worse, a rash appears on the body, and with the diagnosis of a " Typhoid »Zander is hospitalized in an infectious hospital. Friedrich Arturovich Zander died at 6 am on March 28, 1933. He was buried in Kislovodsk.

It is most likely that Zander caught typhus in a train – to save money he was traveling in a general (sitting) car. Probably affected by the general depletion of processing, weakened the body. It is possible that if he followed a reasonable balance of work and rest, his body could cope with the disease.

Already after Zander's death, the OR-2 engine began testing, and in the fall of 1933 the GIRD- X. В память о нем назван кратер на обратной стороне Луны, улицы в нескольких городах бывшего СССР.

В 2015 году ТВ Роскосмоса сняло небольшую видеобиографию.

В сети можно найти видео посещения музея Цандера в Риге.

Источники и дополнительное чтение:

  1. Зильманович Д.Я., Пионер советского ракетостроения Ф.А. Цандер, Военное издательство МО СССР, М., 1966.
  2. http://epizodsspace.airbase.ru/bibl/golovanov/doroga/18.html
  3. http://epizodsspace.airbase.ru/bibl/n_i_j/1987/8/tsander.html
  4. http://adsl.kirov.ru/projects/articles/2012/03/23/mars-krasnaya-planeta/
  5. http://epizodsspace.airbase.ru/bibl/tm/1962/9/tsander.html
  6. http://www.space.hobby.ru/firsts/tsander.html