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Interesting facts about Ancient Egypt

        

Man began to master the banks of the Nile as far back as the distant Paleolithic. Findings of flint tools in the course of archaeological research have proved that the first sites of ancestors appear in Egypt about 700 thousand years ago. The first settlers in the Nile valley laid the foundation for the emergence and development of an amazing civilization. Ancient Egypt is not in a hurry to share its secrets, but gradually and measuredly opens the veil over its amazing and mysterious history to the Humanity.

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The role of the priests in Ancient Egypt

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<p> One of the mysterious phenomena of Ancient Egypt is the activity of the priests, they were the ministers of the temples, but at the same time they performed a number of state functions .The Egyptian pharaoh never started a significant deal, not </p>
<p> Egyptian priests were the connecting link between mere mortals and gods.Priests and only priests had the right to communicate with the gods.For each god in Egypt a separate temple was built where sacred actions took place.In the center of the temple there was a statue Deities, and here the most interesting, the priests treated the statue of the deity as a living person: they brought food, washed and changed their clothes. For example, in the temple of the god Amon-Ra, more than 60 actions were prescribed to evoke the favor of the Sun God. Respectful attitude to the gods, was brought up by the Egyptians from childhood. Among the revered stood Pharaoh – the embodiment of God on earth. </p>
<p> Ancient Egyptian priests were carriers of a large amount of knowledge that were inaccessible to the simple Egyptian. The knowledge accumulated by previous generations was classified and transmitted strictly within the closed circle of the priests. As a result of long-term observations of the phenomena of nature, the movement of celestial bodies, human diseases and their manifestations, scientific conclusions were drawn and entered into the papyrus. Based on this knowledge, the priests successfully treated the diseases, predicted the dates of sowing and harvesting. </p>
<p> Archaeologically confirmed that ancient Egypt had already carried out trepanation of the skull – a complicated surgical operation. Most likely, the priest-scientists already knew such a notion as the "Universe". It did not work in the activities of the priests and without magical actions. With the help of infusions of herbs, intoxicating drugs were included in the trance in order to communicate with the deity. There were even special poses (a kind of yoga), which had to be taken before the statue of God, to cause his favor. But still the main function of the priests was to maintain a harmonious order of things in the universe. </p>
<p> Faith in the magical power of the ancient Egyptian temples and artifacts remains today. Rock stars, statesmen and politicians visit the ancient monuments of Egypt to cure or beg for success in their endeavors. </p>
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Colored glass

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<p> ] In addition to the art of venerating the Gods, the Egyptians achieved high perfection in various crafts.In addition to the monumental construction of pyramids and statues, multi-functional tools, ancient Egyptians could make unique, beautiful things. </p>
<p> So, in the course of archaeological excavations in Scandinavia, in the Danish city of Albi, glass beads of blue were found, and researchers of various specialties discovered that this glass decoration was made by an ancient Egyptian master from Amarna. </p>
<p> AD, beads were really a work of art. Blue was deeply revered by the Egyptians, as it was the color of the waters of the Nile and the sea. And the Nile is life. The spills of the Nile provided yields of cereals and other crops on the fields cultivated by the Egyptians. It is not difficult to imagine that glass in that era was valued very highly. It could only be changed to very significant and equivalent materials. By supplying glassware to the northern peoples, the Egyptians received amber instead. </p>
<p> What did amber mean to residents of the Nile Valley? They believed that the Sun was hidden in it. And the most revered of the Egyptian gods is Amon or the god of the Sun Ra. In the accompanying things of the burials of Egyptian pharaohs, amber is found quite often. So, the exchange, according to the Egyptians, was equivalent. </p>
<p> In the case of material exchange, mutual spiritual penetration most likely occurred. Scandinavians could perceive certain elements of the spiritual culture of the Egyptians and incorporate them into their mythology and beliefs. </p>
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] Women-doctors in Ancient Egypt

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<p> Another unique phenomenon of Ancient Egypt was the actual equality of the sexes: over time, the role of women in human society lost its original meaning and was reduced only to the function of procreation and housekeeping. Women had a number of privileges along with men.They performed state functions, such as drafting legal documents, had the right to property.The vivid examples of the role of women in ancient Egyptian society are the queens Nefertiti and Hapshesut, in later history – Cleopatra. </p>
<p> ] To the areas where women were allowed, there was medicine. Records of papyri and inscriptions on tombs mention the names of one hundred female doctors. Women physicians were quite successful and they were trusted by their lives by high-ranking officials, and even by pharaohs. The first mention of a female doctor refers to the 27th century BC. </p>
<p> History has been preserved for future generations by its name – Merit Ptah. There is even her image, preserved in the necropolis of the pyramid of Sakkara. Maybe the Mankind did not even know about Merip, except for her son, who was the high priest. It was in his tomb found a clay tablet with a mention of his mother-doctor, where it is indicated that she specialized mainly in obstetrics. Treated also with the help of herbs and spiritualistic sessions, which was natural for that time. </p>
<p> The next name that came to us through the veil of millennia is the woman doctor Peshesht. Ancient sources say that she was not only a doctor, but also a supervisor over doctors. Perhaps this was the first semblance of the first hospital, led by Peshesht </p>
<p> Respect for female doctors in ancient Egyptian society was expressed in special veneration. Their names are immortalized not only in the mention in the sources, but also in the creation of separate hieroglyphs for these women. </p>
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The diet of the Egyptians

 The diet "width =" 800 "height =" 500 "class =" aligncenter size-full wp-image-17884 "/ </p>
<p> The development of archeology And other accompanying historical and physical and technical sciences allowed to compile a menu of ancient Egyptians.The French scientists investigated 45 mummies for the presence and correlation of two isotopes of carbon.The studies were truly colossal. Covered the period from 3500 to 600 BC </p>
<p> During the study, scientists drew attention to the fact that in mummies, carbon-12 predominates, but also the carbon-13 isotope is encountered on the basis of already available data on animals, scientists Determined the composition of the food, which was used by the ancient Egyptians.It turned out that most of them were vegetarians, they used meat very seldom. The created irrigation system in the Nile valley allowed the Egyptians to achieve high yield and nutritional value of cereals. </p>
<p> In the main diet of the Egyptians was wheat, barley. In the food added and products derived from Europe, containing starch (sorghum, millet). Vegetable food gave the inhabitants of Egypt all the minerals necessary for life. But the absence of fats and meat proteins promoted the development of certain types of diseases in people. </p>
<p> Another article used in food products was fish. Wall painting and writing give us an idea of ​​the high development of fishing in Ancient Egypt, but, surprisingly, the Egyptians consumed very little fish and seafood. </p>
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Health Problems

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<p> Once the conversation turned to a nutritious diet, it's time to talk about the diseases that the ancient Egyptians were exposed to. Ancient sources give us a lot and at the same time very little information about people's lives This is why, sometimes, wrong conclusions are drawn when projecting modern ideas about life to the past. </p>
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Excavations of the necropolis near Tel-el-Marne showed the real conditions of people's lives in ancient Egypt. 3000 years, showed that the average height of men was 158 centimeters.Women were 2-5 centimeters below.

Male and female skeletons indicated high fatigue of the population. According to some signs, people lacked animal protein and elementary time for proper rest. Studies have also shown a high mortality rate among adolescents. Among the diseases widespread was anemia.

But one can not tear the fact out of the general context. Tel-el-Marne had the ancient capital of the pharaoh Akhenaten, who carried out radical reforms, which amounted to the introduction of monotheism in Egypt. The reforms carried out forcibly. Therefore, studies of the remains of the necropolis show signs of overstrain of human resources.

As you can see, Egypt has a fascinating and sometimes mysterious history. And what other mysterious discoveries await researchers, time will tell.

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6

Drunkards of the Mikerin

 The drunkards of the Mikerin "Everyone dreams of leaving a mark in history, at least for the time being." 
 

<p> Tiny information about themselves or their activities.For example, the potters of ancient Greece, if they could not write, simply put a distinctive mark – left a thumbprint on the handles of their products. </p>
<p> Similarly, workers and artists Ancient Egypt left a trace of itself and its activities in the form of graffiti on the walls of buildings in the construction of which they took part or on manufactured objects.Many of the extant drawings of this kind are humorous in nature.For history such "traces in the history" of the price by their informativeness, And unlike official documents, they can tell a lot about the everyday life of people of that time. </p>
<p> So, thanks to such graffiti, scientists established that when building monumental structures, the builders shared but thousands. These thousands were smaller units of narrow specialization. The work of the groups led to a general result – the construction of a solid building or tomb of the pharaoh. Each unit chose a nickname, with the obligatory inclusion of the name of the pharaoh to which they worked. Some of them have come down to us, for example, and it's as funny as "Drinkers of the Mikerin". </p>
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The Blue Lotus

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<p> Ancient The Egyptians deified not only animals but also plants.The most revered flower was the blue water lily or, as it was called the "blue lotus." </p>
<p> The ancient Egyptian myth of the creation of the world, which has survived, claims that the lotus flower was formed from protovselennoy chaos and breed The god of the Sun, who, in turn, became the progenitor of all life on earth. </p>
<p> The Egyptians perceived the behavior of the flower as the incarnation of the divine beginning in it.The lotus opened his petals in the early morning, just before dawn, exposing the world to the golden mean The flower of the lily was widely used by the priests in carrying out the mysticism, and the flowers of the blue lotus moved to the walls of churches, religious writings, monuments of civil architecture. </p>
<p> ing ceremonies and medicine. Women and men used flowers as decorations in their hair and clothes. The researchers also found that blue lotus flowers contain a vasodilator that can fight erectile dysfunction. Perhaps it is this circumstance that causes his appearance in erotic art. </p>
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The influence of Nubian culture

 The pyramids of Nubia "The size of the pyramids of Nubia </figcaption>
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<p> The There are many examples of the mixture of different cultures, and ancient Egypt did not avoid this process, sometimes finds in the burials of elements of different cultures, in the absence of sufficient information, puzzle archeologists and historians. </p>
<p> This happened in the study of women's graves in Upper Nubia, historians already knew from written sources that around 1500 BC Egypt conquered and subjugated the population of Upper Nubia. The burial harmoniously intertwined Egyptian and Nubian burial traditions. The woman was buried in the Egyptian sarcophagus, but according to the Nubian tradition – on the bed in the embryo pose, with knees pressed to the stomach. </p>
<p> An Egyptian amulet was found around the woman's neck, and there were no ivory jewelry found in large numbers in Nubian female burial places. </p>
<p> So, on the example of one female burial place, scientists traced the long process of merging of two ancient cultures, and proved that this process was mutual. Egyptians, imposing their cultural traditions, simultaneously perceived the Nubian values ​​in themselves. </p>
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Egalitarian Concept of marriage

 The first taboos in the history of mankind were the first taboo in the history of mankind At the official level, premarital sex in Ancient Egypt was not forbidden, but the state and society still expected from the young Egyptians that they would create a family .In time, a tradition developed in Egypt when the young People married before they reached the age of 20. Most likely, such early marriages were due to short life expectancy. </p>
<p> Unlike later cultures and civilizations, the state and religion in Ancient Egypt did not affect how Relations in the family, most likely, it was a kind of social contract between the spouses. They discussed the use of premarital property, as well as property, acquired as a result of joint activities. An uneasy life created the basis for such an economic foundation of marriage. </p>
<p> This egalitarian concept of marriage equalized the rights of men and women. Women, like men, had the right to file for divorce for any reason. But what is noteworthy, there are more things in the investigated women's burials than in men's. It is caused by a funeral tradition, or it really is the consequences of the property division in the divorce, in which the woman kept her property and received two thirds of the property acquired with her husband. </p>
<p> After the divorce, the Egyptians easily remarried, despite the fact that similar Actions were condemned by society. Information on family relations is supplemented by drawings and texts in which the ancient Egyptians appear before us as romantics, compassionate and monogamous people. </p>
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Salad-aphrodisiac

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<p> Another fact from Egyptian history related to the plant: it would seem that such a vegetable garden as a salad does not really fit in with an aphrodisiac, but the creative Egyptians also saw some signs of a masculine beginning. </p>
<p> At first, The very form of a salad that is somewhat similar to a part of the male organism, and secondly, when cut off, the secret juice reminded Egyptians of sperm or mother's milk.On these signs, the Egyptians personified a salad with the God of the fertility of the Min.It was precisely this Egyptian God who was ordained Lettuce. </p>
<p> The antiquity of venerating a salad, says that Ming is one of the most ancient gods of the Egyptian pantheon. The first mention of the salad is found in tombs dating back to the 3rd millennium BC. But about 2000 BC. Salad steel to read in the sexual plane. </p>
<p> Maybe that's why the inhabitants of the Nile Valley did not eat salad leaves, but used its seeds, squeezing oil out of them. The leaves were simply recycled. Полученное масло использовали в лечебных целях, добавляли при приготовлении еды. Ученные также обнаружили остатки масла из семян салата на мумиях, следовательно, египтяне активно использовали полученный продукт при бальзамировании своих умерших.</p>
<p>Яркий пример таинственности египетской истории и культуры. Простое огородное растение стало воплощением божества на земле.</p>
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<h3>Заключение</h3>
<p>Это был интересные факты о Древнем Египте. Спасибо за внимание!</p>
<p>Автор статьи: Валерий Скиба</p>

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