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Interesting facts about the exploration of the Cosmos

        

The most interesting facts about the exploration of the cosmos

The conquest of the Cosmos is one of the most significant milestones in the history of Mankind. From ancient times people stared at the stars and could not explain what their attraction was. Dreamers of the past have built fantastic projects to master stars and travel in extraterrestrial spaces. People even now dream of settling on distant planets. On the Moon, all the parcels have already been bought for crazy money. And only in the XX century the critical mass of knowledge of Humanity reached a level when people could overcome the attraction of the Earth and began to master the Cosmos.

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Gagarin Traditions

 The Gagarin Traditions. Interesting facts about the exploration of the cosmos "Yuri Gagarin became not only the first person on Earth who made the first Flight to space, but also was the pioneer of many traditions.The subsequent Soviet cosmonauts accurately repeat the actions of Yuri Gagarin, committed by him before the first flight. </p>
<p> On the No 31 platform, better known as the famous "Two" or "Gagarin start" , Near the Mounting and engineering building there are two small, one-story houses.In the night from 11 to 12 April 196 1 year before the launch of the ship "Vostok" with a man on board, in one of them the chief designer Sergey Korolev spent the night in another house – Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin.Since that time these buildings were called: "Korolev's house" and " Gagarin's house. "As the pre-flight night went by, whether the designer and cosmonaut managed to fall asleep, history is silent, but the tradition was laid: the cosmonaut, who was to be sent from space flight, spent the night in" Gagarin's house ". </p>
<p> Svetlana Savitskaya, who mud of unknown reasons refused to sleep in the "house of Gagarin," and spent the night in a hotel room with his father. Even if we assume that she was afraid to sleep alone in the empty house, then how to explain the boldness of space flight? Riddle. </p>
<p> Most likely, the women-cosmonauts did not observe one more Gagarin tradition – to get the need for the wheel of the bus, which carries the cosmonaut to the rocket. In the April morning of 1961, Yuri asked to stop the bus halfway from the site to the rocket. He went out, dipped the bus wheel, and went on to conquer the space expanses. Today, these Gagarin traditions have become a thing of the past, but the whole world hears its famous "Let's go!" With every start of the Russian conquerors of the Cosmos. </p>
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<h2> The monument to the carrier </h2>
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In peaceful space there are weapons

 Weapons in Cosmos Do not be afraid, these weapons are not mass destruction, capable of destroying extraterrestrial civilizations and And our Planet.This is the usual pistols called "The survival weapon of the cosmonauts SONAS (Small Arms of Worn Emergency Stock) is known under the indices of TP-82 or TOZ-82. </p>
<p> And it all began in the distant 1965. After the flight in Space on the Vostok-2 spacecraft, cosmonauts Alexei Leonov and Pavel Belyaev made an emergency landing outside the flight set by the flight and found themselves in a dense, impenetrable winter taiga. The cosmonauts spent two days in anticipation of a search and rescue expedition. Makarov pistol, which was for the astronauts at the time was not suitable for protection against wild animals. For two days the peasants had to eat something, because the supply of food on the ship did not envisage a similar situation. As it turned out, "Makarov" is not very convenient and effective as a hunting weapon. </p>
<p> Having become a big boss and taking up the post of deputy head of the Cosmonaut Training Center, Leonov, recalling the history of his emergency landing, put forward the idea of ​​creating cosmonauts Special weapons. </p>
<p> The designers of weapons factories quickly embodied the idea. In the summer of 1982 on board the "Soyuz-6" in portable emergency astronaut entered the gun TP-82. It was a truly unique weapon, its multifunctionality can help astronauts survive in extreme conditions. </p>
<p> The pistol consists of three trunks. The upper two smoothbore barrels are designed for hunting cartridges of 32 caliber. Lower rifled barrel – for a 5.4-caliber cartridge. For aimed fire kit includes detachable butt a machete with a trapezoidal blade. The attachment is fastened to the bottom of the handle of the gun. In a set of 11 cartridges, there are also signal rockets to give a distress signal. </p>
<p> We do not know exactly whether our cosmonauts had to use the TP-82, but let all the landings be regular, not emergency ones. In 1987, the production of such pistols was discontinued. The Small Arms of the TP-82 entered the Worn Wreck Reserve until 2007. This year the storage period for cartridges to TP-82 has expired. </p>
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Closed Project

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 MiG-105.11 </p>
<p> The rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States in the space sphere The designers of both countries, motivated by the primacy in the exploration of the Cosmos, moved not only space science, but also many other scientific branches. </p>
<p> In the late 1950s, the two countries simultaneously gave birth to the idea of ​​creating An airplane that could enter the stratosphere and take another aircraft into Earth's orbit. </p>
<p> In 1965, the design was given to the design bureau by A. Mikoyan, led by a project named "Spiral" by designer G. Lozino-Lozinsky. </p>
<p> It was supposed to create a two-stage system, in which the first aircraft reached a speed of 2 km per second and put into orbit the second aircraft, controlled by the cosmonaut. An interesting fact that it was supposed to use as a fuel the reaction of oxygen and hydrogen. This was successfully implemented in the late 80-ies in the project "Energy-Buran". From the orbit, the aircraft could land on any unpaved airfield. </p>
<p> In the late sixties and mid-70s, a number of successful test flights were conducted. First with unmanned vehicles, and then with pilots. The Soviet project was much better than similar American developments. But in 1969 the works were partially suspended, and after test flights in 1976, the shuttle aircraft Mig-105.11, is completely closed. This allowed the Americans to overtake the USSR in the field of using reusable spacecraft in space exploration. </p>
<p> A similar project "Energy-Buran" also became a one-off show of the achievements of Soviet science in the exploration of the Kosmos </p>
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5

Korolev insured himself

 The satellite "width =" 800 "height =" 500 "class =" aligncenter Size-full wp-image-17852 "/ </p>
<p> The dream of S. Korolev about launching a rocket into space and putting an artificial satellite into orbit was coming to an end. For the hundredth time they checked all the calculations, the satellite was already on the stand, which was ready to send it to the launch vehicle, by the way, for the first time the BSEM-1 computer was used for satellite calculations. </p>
<p> But the timing of the launch of the first Earth satellite was A version of the transfer suggests that its launch was intended to coincide with the opening of an international congress on astronautics in Barcelona. So, it actually happened, and the satellite went into orbit on October 4, 1957. The Soviet representative at the congress Leonid Sedov solemnly reported this news to the world community. </p>
<p> The second version, Sergei Korolev simply reinsured. There was information that in the US on October 3, the launch of such an American satellite is scheduled. The Americans did not succeed, but could be the first in this matter of mastering the Cosmos. Perhaps, our designers had a fear of failure, and they decided to wait for the results of the launch in the US. In the end, everything turned out, and the whole world heard the signals sent from Sputnik-1 from Space to Earth. </p>
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Intrusion of the spies

 Baikonur "width =" 800 "height =" 500 "class =" aligncenter size-full wp-image-17854 "/ </p>
<p> The construction of the cosmodrome in the Kazakh steppe near the village of Tura-Tam began on June 2, 1955. At the same time, a plywood village and layouts of the launch sites began to be built near the village of Baikonur in the Karaganda region, with only one goal in mind – to confuse enemy spies. With the launching of missile launches from a real cosmodrome, all official reports broadcast missile launches from the test site near the Baikonur settlement. </p>
<p> Only after the successful flight of Yuri Gagarin, the Baikonur name was assigned to the present cosmodrome, and the city that grew up next The plywood town lasted until the mid-1970s, although the Americans knew about the present cosmodrome since 1957. </p>
<p> And in 1966, when Baikonur was visited by a French delegation with Charles de Gaulle at the head, he was renamed Star deg. Residents asked to leave the name they liked, but the official authorities left the former name to the city of Leninsk </p>
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To the rocket

 Glushko </p>
<p> In 1923, the creator of the space complex "Energy-Buran" Valentin Glushko was 15. He attended the Odessa Conservatory and the Art Circle, and the designer of rockets carried his love to music and painting all his life. </p>
<p> Painting and meeting with the Naval commander The museum of Alexander Stefanovsky predetermined the choice of the young Glushko. </p>
<p> Stefonovski once saw the drawings of Valentin Glushko and immediately suggested that he draw a map of Marx for the museum exposition.Developing the map of Mars, Stefanovsky started a conversation with Valentin about interplanetary travel and Proposed to draw another picture – a space rocket. </p>
<p> Drawing a sketch of the rocket cut, Valentin Glushko understood how much to know in order to make sketches out of a sketch and make specific calculations. And Valentin decided to study physics, mechanics, and chemistry even harder. </p>
<p> In 1923, in the halls of the Naval Museum, a sketch of an interplanetary rocket appeared. A year later Konstantin Tsiolkovsky will receive a letter from a teenager with full support for his idea of ​​flying into space. And in 1989, "Energy" Valentina Glushko will put into orbit "Buran". </p>
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Gagarin was ready to help

 Remains of Komarov "width =" 800 "height =" 500 "class =" size-full wp-image-17856 "/ 
 
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Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov before his second flight to space, as if he had a presentiment of death. wife to drive a car, and on March 8 gave og Omnyh service, saying that you will then take guests.

And all the haste, on the 50th anniversary of the revolution needed a successful flight. The Soyuz-1 rocket with Komarov on board rose from the launch on April 23, 1967.

A series of breakdowns of an iron car decided the fate of a living person in it.The solar battery did not open, holding the parachute of the descent vehicle, the automatic braking system failed, the manual system managed to slow the ship's movement above the calculated point, but the parachute did not open

] At the launch site of the crash, but help cosmon that could do nothing. Gagarin flew from Moscow to Baikonur and began to beg the Queen to put the rocket on the launch. He was ready to go to Vladimir to help, dock and transplant him into his ship. Gagarin was ready … but was not ready equipment. It was not possible at that time to prepare a new start so quickly.

Vladimir Komarov has two graves and two certificates of death. The descent vehicle burnt down with the astronaut in the dense layers of the atmosphere. The country met its 50th birthday without it.

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9

The cigarette saved life

The fact of the tragedy was concealed until the 90s of the XX century.

 The Cigarette saved the life " Because of it, there are no launches on October 24. On this day, in the 1960s, the R-16 rocket exploded at the start, according to the official version, 76 people were killed, including the Marshal MI Nedelin, Commander-in-Chief of the Missile Forces </p>
<p> ] During the explosion, all who were in the 100-meter zone from the rocket, survive b It was a rocket designed by Yangelya, and a few minutes before the start he left to smoke, which saved his life. "Nikita Khrushchev unceremoniously asked him on the phone:" Why did not you die? .. "</p>
<p> From The deputy chief of the range, Major-General Mrykin, went off to smoke with Yangel and assured the designer that he would now smoke a cigarette with him and quit smoking. After the explosion, the Major-General did not quit smoking until the end of his life. All the dead were buried as victims of a plane crash. </p>
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Welcome to Earth

]  The dry law "From the very first day of its existence, and even during the construction, At the Baikonur Cosmodrome and in the city of Leninsk, a dry law was introduced, after all, the military people are mainly, and the responsibility is great, because not only the spacecraft launched into space but also created the nuclear shield of the country. </p>
<p> Every year under the order of the landfill supplied A certain amount of alcohol was used to flush the systems in 1957. In 1957, they ordered 12 tons, and only 7 tons were used, they did not break their heads for a long time, what to do with the remains. They dug a hole and poured in the remaining product. The law was dry, but the order was immediately restored, and a cavalry soldier was put up in the pit, and the next day the alcohol was burnt. Korolev noticed with regret: "That's shame, what kind of good is it!" </p>
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<h3> Conclusion </h3>
<p> These were the most interesting facts about the exploration of the Cosmos. Thank you for your attention! </p>
<p> Author of the article: Valery Skiba </p>

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