The universe is infinite, so immense that any point can be considered its center
Turning over pages of the history of the development of domestic computer technology, one can not help recalling the outstanding inventor and experimenter Isaak Semyonovich Brook. More than 100 scientific works, 50 inventions, he made a significant contribution to the creation of small and control machines. A remarkable scientist, corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and just an interesting person, he combined an uncontrollable desire for knowledge of the new and fearlessness in translating ideas into life. I.S. Brook became the first director of the Institute of Electronic Control Machines (INEUM) of the USSR Academy of Sciences, where he created small digital computers M-1, M-2, M-3, M-4, M-5, M-7-200 and M-7-800.
In the city of Minsk on November 8, 1902, Isaak Semyonovich Brook was born to a Jewish family. Father was a simple employee at a tobacco factory, although the family was not rich, but parents did their best to have their children receive a good education and upbringing. In 1920, Isaak graduated from the real school, and his two sisters – Masha and Mirra – studied at the gymnasium and music school. Since his early youth Isaac showed considerable interest in engineering, machines, various mechanisms. He was a frequent guest at the electromechanical plant "Energia", where he came in the hope of obtaining from the masters unnecessary parts, pieces of iron. He brought them home, turning his room into a real workshop. As a sponge absorbed the explanation of the principles of work and the installation of machine tools. He was a very inquisitive boy, read a lot of J. Verne, J. London, drew, was fond of astronomy. Even while studying in a real school he was fascinated by the world of exact sciences.
Electrotechnical faculty of MVTU them. NE Bauman
In 1920, Isaak entered the electrotechnical faculty of MVTU them. NE Bauman in Moscow. While studying he was engaged in research, his thesis work was about the ways of regulation of asynchronous motors. Working in the All-Union Electrotechnical Institute. VI Lenin, took part in the creation of a new series of induction motors and solving the problems of parallel operation of power generators. Despite the fact that these were difficult postwar years, Brooke was happy, doing his favorite thing.
Laboratory of Electrical Systems
From 1930 to 1935, a young researcher worked at an electrical plant in Kharkov, where under his vigilant guidance electric cars of a new design were built, as well as explosion-proof asynchronous engines. Returning to Moscow, a talented young engineer was recommended by Academician KI Shenfer to work at the Energy Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences (ENIN). Regimes of powerful energy systems were calculated in the laboratory of electrical systems organized by Brook. Simulation of such systems required the creation of an AC design table, later called an analog computer. For that in May 1936, Isaak Brouk was awarded the degree of candidate of technical sciences. Thesis "Longitudinal Compensation of Power Lines" he defended in October.
Investigations in the field of electric power industry required complex calculations, the scientist was well aware that moving forward without the help of computing tools is simply unrealistic. In 1939, under his leadership, a mechanical differential analyzer was created, which allowed solving systems of differential equations up to the sixth order. The dimensions of the device were impressive – the area occupied by it was 60 sq.m. After the presentation of the integrator-analyzer at the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences, Brooke was elected a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
During the war, Brooke was engaged in research in the field of power engineering, research on the static stability of power systems. Under his leadership, work was carried out on the development of equipment for regulating frequency and active power for the largest power plants in the USSR.
The scientist did not stop working on analog computers. Isaak Semenovich studied foreign publications about digital computers, was an ardent participant of a scientific seminar at the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences, which raised questions about the need for automation calculations. As a result, in the summer of 1948 the Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Science began its existence. But, alas, Brook and his laboratory were not part of the formed institute. It happened that's why …
B. I. Rameev
In 1948, I. S. Brook, together with the young designer B. I. Rameev, who raved about the idea of creating something like the first American computer, "Eniac," jointly developed a digital computer project With rigid program control. In December 1948, they managed to obtain a copyright certificate for the invention of the "Automatic Digital Machine". The first copyright certificate for an invention in the field of digital electronic computers in the USSR. Isaak was a born creator of machines, but not the chief designer and therefore, when in 1949 Rameyev was drafted into the army – the scientist lost his only performer. The loud project remained just on paper, unrealized.
Creation of the M-1 – the first small digital computer or the rate for the youth
Isaak Semenovich understood that now, more than ever, he needed helpers, because in 1950 he made a request to the personnel department of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute. Young, enthusiastic people began to gather in the electrical system laboratory, headed by Brooke. According to the memoirs of M. A. Kartsev – in the early 50's was the leading developer of computers in the laboratory – none of those who came to raise Soviet computer technology was a specialist in this field, and in principle it was not known whether an electronic computer can exist. 10 people, among whom there was a graduate of MEI N. Matyukhin, graduates of T. Alexandridi, M. Kartsev, graduated from technical school R. Shidlovsky,
Began working on the development and creation of a small digital computer M-1.
ATSVM M-1. View from the side of the magnetic drum
From the memoirs of Nikolai Yakovlevich Matyukhin:
Our group was small, and probably this was one of the main factors that made I.S. Brooke to direct our efforts to create small (for those times) computers. Of course, no one from the recruits imagined the whole complexity of the work … Probably, that's why we had no doubts that we would make the car, although the level of radio electronic equipment of those years among experienced specialists could cause serious fears in the reality of this venture. Fortunately, we had no idea that lamps and radio components have the ability to refuse quite often, and without any hesitation began to work …
Work boiled, after just two months in April 1950, Io. Brooke issued a decree of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences on the creation of a digital computer. In one of his books BN Malinovsky writes that such decisive actions were caused by the arrival in the laboratory of Brooke of a young specialist in the field of radio engineering N.Ya. Matyukhin. He was insanely talented, while still a student he took part in scientific research. Brook set before him the first task – to design an important computer node, a drop-in decoder. Initially, even without the idea of what a computer is, Matyukhin actually became the chief designer of the M-1.
And. S. Brook, the scientific supervisor of the development, provided the student with the necessary literature, more than once conducted interviews, which dealt with such issues as the principles of computer operation, the binary system of numeration, numerical methods of computation. His idea was to use German cuprox rectifiers instead of electron tubes to construct the logical elements. In M-1 were implemented: a two-address command system, logic arithmetic and machine control schemes were built on the basis of semiconductor diodes, as the elements of RAM were used cathode-ray tubes from conventional oscilloscopes, the input-output device was a teletype.
young N.Ya. Matyukhin
In 1952, a machine built on the basis of architecture with a stored program was put into operation. M-1 – the world's first computer, in which all logic circuits were made on semiconductors, performed 15-20 operations per second over 23-bit numbers and had a memory capacity of 256 words.
The program of the first task, solved on M-1, 1951
It was an incredible breakthrough of a young talented team – it took less than two years for M-1 to work. I would like to take into account the fact that all 9 employees, except Brooke, who were engaged in creating the device, did not even have academic degrees.
Creation of a more advanced digital computer M-2
In the spring of 1952, IS Brook singled out to MA Kartsev a group of 7 people for the development of a digital computer M-2. A group of MGI alumni led by MA Kartsev designed and built a better computer, its productivity was equal to the productivity of the computer "Strela" and BESM – 2 thousand operations per second. Oscillographic CRTs were used as memory elements, and semiconductor diodes in logic circuits. Due to this, in M-2 was 4 times less than electronic tubes, power consumption decreased by 7 times, to accommodate the device required 22 square meters. Meter. In January 1953 M-2 already worked with a magnetic drum, and in the summer – with electronic memory.
In the next three years Kartsev realized the idea of shortened addresses in teams and truncated transaction codes. In 1957, the M-2 was upgraded, the capacity of the OP was up to 4096 words. On a small computer, calculations were made for the Institute of Atomic Energy, the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Academician S. P. Korolev, and many others. Machine M-2 was in a single copy and worked at the Energy Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR for 15 years, there were rumors that it was tried to create in China.
Small computer M-3 for design and research institutes
In 1955 – 1956, Isaak Brook formulated the concept of small computers and their differences from machines of marginal productivity. The Laboratory of Control Machines and Brook Systems of the USSR Academy of Sciences and NIIEP began to develop a small M-3 computer. The basic ideas of construction were proposed by Brooke, Matyukhin, Belynsky, Kagan, Dolkart.
Small computer M-3
The machine with a productivity of 30 operations per second operated with 30-bit binary numbers with a fixed point, had a two-address command format, memory on Magnetic drum with a capacity of 2048 numbers, the performance increased when working with ferrite memory – 1,5 thousand operations per second. Occupied area M-3 – 3 square meters. Meter, was produced serially at the plant. S. Ordzhonikidze in Minsk. M-3 became a prototype for two industrial series of computers – Minsk and Hrazdan. M-3 consisted of 3 cabinets:
- main cabinet with arithmetic knot, local and central control systems and machine control panel
- memory cabinet with a magnetic drum, recording and reading amplifiers and a number selection control device
There was a table for placing telegraph equipment, which was used as input devices from punched tape and output to print and punched tape.
S. Ordzhonikidze in Minsk
Interesting fact: the work on the creation of the M-3 computer was not originally part of the state plans, because the commission headed by Academician N. G. Bruevich did not want to take the car, it took two years Before it was launched into batch production.
Creation of a control computer M4, M-5, M-7
The first domestic machine, built on the elemental base of the second generation, was developed in 1958 – 1964 for real-time control of a complex of radar stations (the complex was part of the radio electronic system for monitoring artificial satellites of the Earth). Initially, the M-4 with 1024 capacity OPs with a 24-bit number and a fixed program memory of 1280 30-bit numbers worked with a 23-bit serial number, Bit numbers with a fixed point. The performance of the M-4 is 30 thousand operations per second.
The upgraded M4-2M with a performance of 220 thousand operations per second, with RAM up to 16 29-bit Kslov, since 1964, the serial release was 15 years. In 1968, peripheral machines M4-3M for input and primary data processing were created for it.
Under the leadership of I. FROM. Brook in 1958-1961 was created a universal computer M-5 on transistor elements and ferrite memory with a multiprogram operation mode. It was developed for planning and economic calculations, it was built on the technical base of the second generation, but in its architecture literally was the predecessor of a third-generation computer. The computer operated with 37-bit fixed-point and floating-point numbers, the 37-bit format of unicast instructions contained fields of addresses, keys, indexes and code of operations.
M-5 never went into mass production, since Minsk Plant them. S. Ordzhonikidze, who was supposed to do this, at that time started production of the computer "Spring."
In 1966-1969 IS Brook was the head of the development of the M-7 control car. It was a sequential digital control machine with magnetic drum memory and developed communication devices with the object, operated with 12-bit fixed-point numbers.
M-7 and its creators
Such a computer was created for the control systems of powerful thermal power units of power plants, its functions were to support the operating modes of the power unit, Minimization of fuel consumption, complex logical programs of start-up and shut-down operations of the power unit, analysis of combinations of power unit operation parameters.
Institute of Electronic Control Machines (INEUM) USSR Academy of Sciences
At the session of the USSR Academy of Sciences on Automation in 1956, Isaak Semenovich made a report, which dealt with the main directions of industrial application of computers and control machines. The Institute of Electronic Control Machines of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (INEUM) and many research institutes and design bureaus in the field of creating control machines and systems of the USSR were created to solve the scientific problem posed by Brooke in 1957 "The development of the theory, the principles of constructing and using electronic control machines ". It was published by the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1958 in the series "Questions of Soviet Science". Here, the very concept of specialized control and computing machines was formulated, their important role for the national economy was substantiated, the main directions of fundamental and applied research in the field of production automation and object management with the help of specialized and controlling machines were highlighted, the ways of using machines in power engineering, machine building, Metallurgy, chemical production, in planning and statistics of the national economy.
Control computers differed from mainframe computers not only by the nature of the connection with the object of control, but also by high reliability, real-time operation, and the possibility of using the external environment in extreme industrial conditions.
The first director of INEUM was I. S. Brook. In 1958, it was approved by the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR as a scientific adviser on the problem "The development of the theory, the principles of constructing and applying control machines."
In the walls of INEUM, from 1957 to 1969, the M-4, M-5, M-7-200 and M-7-800.
Brook understood that apart from the use of computers for scientific calculations and management of objects, they can serve to process economic information and solve problems directly related to the modeling of the economy.
At INEUM Isaak conducted work on the application of mathematical methods and computer technology to solve economic problems at the state level. Experts from the field of economy were involved, but such actions caused a storm of indignation on the part of the leadership of the State Planning Committee of the USSR. Because of the contradictions in 1964, Brooke resigned from the post of director of the Institute of Electronic Control Machines.
After retiring, I.S. Brook continued to work at INEUM as a scientific consultant and head of the scientific and technical council of INEUM. Он принимал участие в обсуждениях и выборе архитектурных, схемотехнических и конструктивных решений для моделей АСВТ-М. В дальнейшем его рекомендации были использованы при разработке ЭВМ М-4000/ М-4030, М-400, СМ 3/СМ 4.
Брук — великий учитель и наставник
Исаак Семенович терпеть не мог всякие сложности, непонятности. Простота, надежность и долговечность, вот чем руководствовался талантливый ученый. Эти понятия в полной мере характеризуют его стиль работы с учениками и машинами. По прошествии многих лет ученики с теплотой вспоминали о великом наставнике. Невероятно талантливый, оптимистично настроенный на результат — Учитель с большой буквы. В его школе царило уважение, поддержка и никакого намека на неудачу. Брук находил подход к каждому, зажигал огонек и рвение к созданию чего-то нового.
Л. С. Легизо: «Он знал, как подойти к каждому, и умел создавать вокруг себя определенную творческую атмосферу. В результате он создал вокруг себя такой коллектив, который дал мощные ростки во всей нашей промышленности… Я бы сказал, что Брук был как бы ядром галактики, порождающим некоторую мыслительную материю… У него мы научились конкретным техническим решениям, получили огромный опыт тематической работы, выучились системному подходу к будущим разработкам».
Исаак Семенович Брук жил лабораторией, постоянно выбивал у руководства оборудование для лаборатории, деньги, премии сотрудникам.
Ученый не переносил обман, лицемерие, будучи человеком слова, не прощал невыполнение обещаний и халатного отношения к работе. Он не боялся критиковать и высказывать свое несогласие с вопросами, касающимися не только компьютеров, но и государственного управления.
И. С. Брук, как учитель, сыграл не последнюю роль в становлении и развитии отечественной вычислительной техники. Его ученики — Б. И. Рамеев, Н. Я. Матюхин, М. А. Карцев, Г. П. Лопато, Б. Н. Наумов в последствии создавали свои коллективы и школы, в которых следовали принципам инженерной школы разработки вычислительных и управляющих машин, созданной И. С. Бруком.
Основной принцип сформированный Бруком — тщательный баланс характеристик производительности, надежности и стоимости при разработке машин малого и среднего класса. Он требовал блестящих знаний теоретических основ электротехники, импульсной техники, умение принимать смелые технические решения при проведении крупных разработок. Обращал внимание на необходимость тесного сотрудничества инжеров и программистов во время разработки и создания ЭВМ.
Исаак Семенович Брук слева
Исаак Семенович Брук был награжден четырьмя орденами Трудового Красного Знамени и медалями СССР за заслуги в области отечественной науки и техники. Более 100 научных работ носят его имя, он получил более 50 авторских свидетельств на изобретения.
Умер он 6 октября 1974 года и был похоронен в Москве на Введенском кладбище.
Хотелось бы закончить статью удивительно простыми и в то же время глубокими словами выдающегося изобретателя:
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