Today we will consider the methods that the US federal government and municipal authorities apply for development directly Innovations, to increase the efficiency of the commercialization of inventions and technologies, the adoption of technology and attract investment from other countries, the development of collaboration between business and the academic environment.
The policy applied to the development of the innovation environment
Research And technology
Support for research in universities and research institutes
The American system for the support of scientific research is based on two fundamental aspects:
- Support for research related to the mission of the state – defense, health – through federal laboratories.
- Support for all other studies primarily through the funding of universities.
For research and development in 2013, the US spent about $ 140 billion. If you count the percentage of GDP spent for these purposes, in the US it has been declining since the 1960s – from the height of the Cold War and the Moon race – and over the years has lost 25%. The jumps in the rise in R & D spending are linked to the National Institutes of Health, which in the 1990s received double the funding to fight cancer and other serious diseases, as well as with the defense industry to respond to the terrorist threats of Iraq and Afghanistan.
The system of federal laboratories in the United States has an extensive network in all states. One part of the laboratories operates directly under the guidance of state bodies, and the other is given to private operators. The largest laboratories are founded by the Ministries of Defense, Energy and Health.
The Office of Advanced Research Projects of the US Department of Defense (DAPRA) plays a huge role in the innovation system, although it does not apply to federal laboratories. It works with various projects, significant for defense.
National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility, a laboratory in Kansas
Ministry Defense, the Ministry of Energy, National Institutes of Health support university research to achieve their own goals. On the other hand, the US National Science Foundation is responsible for the development of science and technology in the country through the provision of temporary grants to entrepreneurs, researchers, research centers for work of a different nature, rather than on specific studies. Part of the funds go to expensive scientific equipment and facilities in "community centers" that scientists and engineers need, but are too expensive for individual researchers or a local group. Nevertheless, funding for university research on the percentage of GDP in the US remains behind many countries, primarily Denmark, Ireland, Australia, Korea and Norway. The graph below shows the percentage of GDP that states spent on university research in 2000-2011.
Technology transfer system
Until the 1980s, the transfer of technology from universities and federal laboratories to the commercial market was not systemic, System support from the federal authorities. Of course, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Stanford University already worked with industry and created technologies for the market. But this was due more to their policies, including working technoparks and a tight connection between the academic environment and business.
In 1980, Congress passed the Stevenson-Wydler Act "On Technological Innovation," which required each federal laboratory to establish an office to identify commercially valuable technologies and their subsequent transfer to the private sector. So the federal government decided to develop cooperation between business and laboratories, to which the state already spends money. And the Baye-Dole law, adopted in the same year, enabled universities to earn their own research results on their own. Until then, universities that received funding from the state could not manage the results of the survey. This law was called The Economist by the most successful in the second half of the 20th century, and The Wall Street Journal included the three most effective measures for the development of innovations.
Support for studies conducted by enterprises
In the United States, commercial activities are mostly conducted by private companies created for profit. The authorities do not directly support R & D in firms directly, only if research is not related to one of the state's missions – for example, with the defense industry.
Nevertheless, the federal government supports a number of policy measures that help to create innovations in companies. In 1981, the Congress established a tax credit for firms to stimulate research and development in the amount of 20%. In 1984, the Small Business Innovation Research was launched, on which federal agencies were required to allocate a share of their R & D budgets to small business research.
The system of knowledge movement
In 1977, the Italian scientist J. Beccatini introduced the term "industrial district": " This is a "local system with active population and primary sectoralization, consisting of small independent firms that specialize in different stages of a single production process." "Marshallian industrial areas," according to the scientist, are naturally or historically limited territories, characterized by the presence and interpenetration of the community of people, and the production apparatus.
In the 1990s, a professor at the Harvard Business School popularized the notion of a cluster: "A cluster is a group of close, geographically interconnected companies and cooperating organizations working together in a particular type of business, characterized by a common direction of activities and complementary to each other Friend ". Clusters create the basis for the inflow of investments into small business, enable entrepreneurs to use the processes of diversification.
The effectiveness of cluster development shows such areas as the Silicon Valley and the Research Triangle of North Carolina, which we discussed in the article Technoparks of Russia and the World. Nevertheless, the US federal government played a minor role in the development of innovative clusters. Instead, the regions are engaged in this, developing appropriate support programs.
Collaboration system in industry (with academic and research institutes)
Universities – Massachusetts Technological, California Technological, Stanford – actively work With business. But for each of these universities there is a dozen, where innovation works much less efficiently. In the best universities for years, there was interaction between business, and between students and professors. Its role is played by the absence of a strict hierarchy: you do not need to be a professor twice to create a new technology and get support in its commercialization.
Organizations such as the Network of Engineering Research Centers, opened by the National Science Foundation, and the Industrial / University Cooperative Research Center (Industry / University Cooperative Research Center) are participating in the collaboration between universities and business. , I / UCRC).
The acquisition of foreign technology and the export of American
The US market is huge, and in a number of areas the country is at the forefront of development. At the same time, the US sometimes implements political measures to obtain foreign technology. For example, foreign direct investment is welcomed. In the 1980s and 1990s, the federal government actively attracted investment from Japanese car manufacturers. In many ways, this was done to obtain jobs inside the country, which was trying to recover from the crisis of the 1970s. But also the aim was to study the Japanese production system.
The US Department of Commerce works with the states, trying to increase their investment attractiveness and attract investments within the framework of the "Select USA" program. And the US Foreign Investment Committee oversees the acquisition of American technology by foreign companies to identify both the economic effect of them and the absence of a threat to national security.
Higher Education System
Some universities and colleges are governed by the states, some are managed and funded by paid training and charitable donations. Some students can afford to pay for tuition, others receive financial assistance from universities. States reduce subsidies for education. This is due to the fact that the US is lagging behind many other countries in terms of enrolled students in higher education institutions.
The federal government is not very concerned about the release of students of certain specialties, basically it leaves their choice to the will of the market. But this leads to a shortage of specialists in science, technology and mathematics. To correct this problem, the state can use a massive program of online courses.
Skill training, advanced training
In the United States, employers previously played an active role in training new skills and skills. Now there is no single national system in the country – employers have been saving on this for the last thirty years. Individual programs operate at the state level.
Wisconsin and Georgia have youth education programs. In some states, there are "career academies" in higher schools. In Michigan, on a competitive basis, grants are given and technical support is provided to start-ups who grew up in 25 industrial alliances.
In Pennsylvania, an industrial partnership program with a budget of 15 million US dollars is designed to ensure the joint work of employers and workers in one cluster to combat the personnel hunger in the industry. In some states, employers can save on taxes if they spend money on improving the skills of employees. For example, in Rhode Island, firms can spend 50% of the money spent on training employees to pay off corporate taxes.
The main component of the skills training system in the US is Community College or "municipal college" – a kind of colleges designed to make higher education more accessible to the US population. These colleges are characterized by low cost of education and a convenient location – in cities. It is convenient for students to work, to follow the family. 1945-1900
The United States of America more than other countries rely on highly skilled migrants to support innovative System. At least seven studies have examined the role of migrants in launching new companies: they are key players in the process of between 15% and 26% of new companies in the high-tech sector of the US over the past twenty years. They opened 40% of firms based in California and New Jersey in the period from 1995 to 2005.
US federal authorities encourage migration through the provision of permanent residence and a temporary work visa for which the employer pays. The country continues to work on facilitating the migrants' path to citizenship.
General policy regarding the innovation system
While there are national innovation policy strategies in Germany, Sweden, Finland, the United States does not have a single coordinated policy in this direction. This reflects the view that innovation should be left to the will of the market and that the role of the state in them is mainly to support the education system.