The world experience has shown that the development of innovations is associated with the formation of small innovative entrepreneurship, which is born in higher education institutions and next to them. Although not always students receive a diploma. Technoparks are preparing simultaneously new technologies and personnel for corporations, and can also be used to develop specific industries and combat "personnel hunger". Among the mechanisms that are used for this, one can name grants, tax breaks and inexpensive rent of premises.
If your company works or worked in Russian or foreign technology parks – please check the comments and tell us about your experience.
In 1971, journalist Don Hefler began to publish a series of articles "Silicon Valley of the United States," and this title identified the name of the world-famous territory in San Francisco. This place was previously distinguished by an abundance of advanced technologies. In 1909, the first radio station in the United States was opened in San Jose, and a year later the Federal Telegraph Corporation in Palo Alto. FTC in the next ten years created the world's first global radio network. After the US Navy deployed a hangar with airships on the coast, technology companies around the air base grew to serve its needs. After the closure of the development program for airships, the air base was occupied by the National Aeronautics Advisory Council, the predecessor of NASA, which also dealt with promising research in the field of aviation.
After the Second World War, when the number of students in Stanford increased dramatically, the university needed additional finance. Sell 32 square kilometers of land was impossible because of the will of the founder of the university. Professor Frederick Emmons Thurman found another way – to start renting land for long-term rent for offices and production. The tenants were given an important demand: they had to be a high-tech company. Now the students could find a job near the place of training. So there was the first in the US technopark – Stanford Industrial Park. The offices of Eastman Kodak, General Electric, Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, Lockheed were among the first in it. And Hewlett-Packard soon opened its new office here.
Now called Stanford Research Park, it employs more than 150 companies, it has a transport infrastructure and can be reached on foot from the campus of Stanford University. 20 years ago, VMware took off a tiny office of less than 50 square meters, and now employs 19,000 people.
One of the largest research parks in the world operates in North Carolina, USA. It is called the Research Triangle Park. It operates at three universities located in three cities: Duke University in Durham, North Carolina State University in Raleigh and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The park is also one of the oldest, it was created by state and municipal authorities for the benefit of universities and local businesses. The Research Triangle occupies 2,800 hectares, it employs more than 200 companies with 50,000 employees, including IBM with an office of 14,000 people and Cisco Systems with 5,000 employees.
There are special tax conditions in the research park. For every $ 100 of property valuation, taxes are no more than 10 cents.
So the park will look like after redevelopment, for which 50 million dollars will be spent.
The area where the University Park of Massachusetts University of Technology is located today was once a swampy area near the Charles River, during which a battery of artillery guns was located during the siege of the United Kingdom by Boston. In the 1850s, along the river, a railway was built. Several productions have appeared, including Simplex Wire & Cable Company, Kennedy Biscuit Company, Necco sweets factory, Sears shoe factory and Ford assembly shop.
In 1969, Simplex moved out. At that time most buildings were destroyed or empty. This went on for many years, while the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was looking for an application for 110,000 square meters of property. In 1983, the Institute chose Forest City Enterprise for land development, and approved a master plan in 1985.
Today offices, laboratories and residential buildings are located in the University Park. The project included 531 apartments for rent. Buildings Kennedy Biscuit and Ford turned into lofts for offices.
In the late 1960s, the universities of Great Britain faced the task of strengthening their links with science-intensive industry. At the local level, the task was solved by creating technoparks. To maximize the benefits of Cambridge's knowledge, equipment and human capital, it was decided to create a science park. Britain at that time had already lost its leading position in the world market of innovations.
In 1973, on land belonging to Trinity College, they began to build and lay roads, and the official opening of the park took place in 1975. Trinity College provides newcomers with apartments, a science park is open to new companies. Among the operating enterprises in the science park is a branch of Philips. Most of the tenants are small, high-tech companies.
Toshiba and the Faculty of Physics of Cambridge University organized a joint venture to use the effects of quantum physics to create 21st century technologies. So, other companies make maximum use of the potential of the university in order to develop and introduce new technologies.
Over the past 10 years, the University of Surrey, in the city of Guildford, UK, more than half of the funding for research projects is received from independent sources.
The Surrey Research Park is operated by the University. The University provides offices equipped with Internet, telephones, faxes, parking and provides administration.