The first snapshot of a black hole can reconcile the theory of relativity and quantum physics

On Wednesday night, 120 astronomers from 8 observatories on four continents began the first attempt to take a photo of a black hole. The shooting began on April 5 and will last until April 14 this year. The object of observation was the neighborhood of two supermassive black holes, one in the center of our Milky Way, the other in the nearby galaxy Messier 87. The first is close, but small in diameter, the second is very far, but huge. Whose better look – while the question. The nearest Sagittarius A * (Sagittarius A *) is located in the center of our Milky Way galaxy at a distance of 26 thousand light years. The distance is 6 billion times greater than the mass of our luminary, so the horizon of events around it is greater. The Sagittarius A * is 1.5 thousand times smaller and fits in a space smaller than the volume inside the orbit of Mercury.

The importance of observation is explained by Gopal Narayanan, professor of astronomy at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst: "At the heart of Einstein's general theory of relativity lies the notion that quantum mechanics and general relativity can Be united, that there is a great, unified theory of fundamental concepts. The horizon of the events of the black hole is exactly the place where this possible association is best studied. "We will only find out the results in 2018 when the computers process the data.There is an assumed image at the end of the post that we should see if the theory of Einstein is true.

Astronomers created a virtual radio telescope about the size of the Earth to observe the horizons of events from disjointed radio telescopes, which are considering each part of the sky. [8] [8]
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The project involves the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Observatory (lead organization), the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the United Observatory ALMA (Chile), the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), the Bauman Radioastronomy Institute. Max Planck (Germany), University of Concepcion (Chile), Sinitsa Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA, Taiwan), National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and Onsala Observatory (Sweden). The combination of radio telescopes is important for observing fast-flowing processes in the Universe, which include, for example, supernova explosions and cosmic radiation fluxes, as well as for detailed studies of small remote cosmic objects, such as the Sagittarius A * black hole. The capabilities of the most powerful optical telescopes are limited when observing even the most massive objects, and black holes are extremely compact.

By linking the power of radio telescopes located in different parts of the globe, astronomers have the opportunity to view extremely remote space objects with a clearness that is two million times greater than the acuity of the human eye. If a person had such a vision, he would have seen a grapefruit lying on the moon or a CD.

The launch of this "virtual" telescope called Event Horizon Telescope has led to the development of Long Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technologies for the past twenty years. The largest millimeter-sized radio telescope in the world, the Atacama Large Millimeter / submillimeter Array (ALMA) observatory on the Chakhnantor highland plateau in Chile, also participates in the project. In the EHT project, from April 5 to 14, VLBI technology turns all the telescopes connected to it into a huge telescope, the size of our planet. The powers of the world's most sensitive radio observatories in Chile, Spain, California, Arizona, the Hawaiian Islands and the South Pole of the Earth were combined. The largest of these is the aforementioned ALMA, consists of 54 12-meter-diameter parabolic antennas and 12 plates with a diameter of 7 meters.

Another intriguing idea that can be studied in this experiment is the so-called "information paradox". This phenomenon is the prediction of Stephen Hawking that matter falling into a black hole can not be lost outside the known universe, that it must somehow flow back. Here's to see how it flows and the astronomers want. The energy or information leaving the black hole through Hawking radiation is a quantum effect. Scientists regularly see the expiration of large plasma jets from the center of galaxies, where black holes are supposed or are. If the connection of black holes and these jets is (or other leaks of information and energy), then the true horizons of events in the strict sense do not form in the collapsed objects in our Universe.

Is it right that Einstein

To see the black hole itself is impossible, but the substance falling into it is possible. Dust, gas and nearby stars create around the black holes a high energy area, or the so-called accretion disk, in which matter is compressed and twisted as in a funnel and warms up. Due to high energies, the substance begins to brighten brightly near the "horizon of events" – the boundary, after which the black hole does not let go of any radiation and information from itself. Thus, we see an image of a black hole of matter eaten by a black hole, a shadow of a black hole.

The modern standard cosmological model of ΛCDM (Lambda-CID) suggests that the general theory of relativity is the correct theory of gravity on cosmological scales and our location in the universe does not particularly stand out, that is, on a fairly large scale, the Universe looks the same in all directions (Isotropy) and from each place (homogeneity). This can also be confirmed or disproved.

Black holes combine the properties described by the two basic physical theories of our time – the theory of general relativity (the theory of large structures) and quantum mechanics (the theory of small distances). The huge mass of a black hole requires the application of the general theory of relativity to describe the curvature of space-time caused by it. But the small size of the black hole and internal processes require the use of quantum mechanics. So far, it has not been possible to combine both these theories. The unification of theories leads to unnatural equations-for example, from them follows the infinite density of a black hole. Earlier in 2015, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) telescope had already measured the magnetic fields in the vicinity of this black hole, but their structure was extremely unusual – the strength of the magnetic field in individual regions of the disk changed every 15 minutes, and its configuration was very different in different corners.

According to some calculations of the general theory of relativity of Albert Einstein, in the pictures we can see a "crescent" of light surrounding an absolutely black "drop". This light is radiated by matter right before the moment it passes through the boundary of the horizon of the events of the black hole. On the horizon of the events of Sagittarius A * scientists suggest to see a lot of flashes. These point flashes are periodically generated there with a high frequency – once a day. Based on past observations, several observatories observed something similar to the flare-up of emissions from Sagittarius A *. As a result of current research, astronomers will be able to trace their origins and look at the process of reducing them.

With successful development of events, hot spots will become a marker of the structure of the time space in this strong gravitational field. "This opens the door to the possibility of tomography imaging – these spots move around, they appear in different areas of observation," said Avery Broderick, an associate professor of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Waterloo, at an EHT presentation earlier. "There are only two places in the universe where one can study strong gravity on large, very large scales and around compact objects," he recalls.
If we see something fundamentally different from what we expect, physicists will have to reconsider, for example, the theory of gravity.

The first images of the black hole that we can see and we will not appear until 2018. In the meantime, let's look at what we can approximately see on these pictures, built as a result of computer modeling.

Combining data and creating a general picture using the measurements of the horizon telescope Is an incorrect task, because each of the results contains an infinite number of possible images explaining the obtained data. The task of astronomers is to find an explanation that takes into account these preliminary assumptions, while satisfying the observed data. The angular resolution of the telescope, necessary to obtain a sufficient amount of data, requires overcoming many problems and makes it difficult to unambiguously reconstruct the image. For example, at observable wavelengths, rapidly varying inhomogeneities in the atmosphere are subject to measurement errors. Reliable algorithms that can restore images in the mode of thin angular resolution, are constantly being searched.

The CHIRP (Continuous High-resolution Image Reconstruction using Patch priors) algorithm, developed by a group of scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is currently performing the task of cleaning, interpreting and converting the received data into a single high-resolution image. However, if you are sufficiently versed in physics and mathematics, the authors of CHIRP published simple online tools for such scholars on the MIT website, with the help of which any person with programming skills can create and test their variant of the data processing algorithm from the Event Horizon telescope. Suddenly you can see the problem under a completely unconventional angle and offer a unique method for solving it. I really did not find information about the reward. But it can be badly searched.

In the set of instruments:

  • A set of combined training data
  • A set of measurements of real data
  • Standardized data set for testing image recovery algorithms
  • Interactive quantitative evaluation of the efficiency of the algorithm on simulated test data
  • Qualitative comparison of the performance of the algorithm in the reconstruction of real data
  • Online form of a booth for modeling realistic data using its own image and telescope parameters

About the preparation of the telescope EHT SurprizingFacts already wrote last year

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