Sleep is important. Sleep is good. Sooner or later we all come to this conclusion (I miss those childhood days when daytime sleep was a duty, not a pleasure, for which today we have to blush). During sleep, new memories are consolidated, and toxic by-products of daytime brain activity are output. But what was unexpected, is the discovery of researchers from the University of the Polytechnic University, who found that lack of sleep involves the same process – however, in this case it takes place in the extreme. It turns out that a chronic loss of sleep translates the brain from a normal cleanup mode on weekends to a mode of manic devastation – while it also eliminates healthy, necessary neural connections.
Scientists have found that in mice with a lack of sleep certain brain cells show unusually high activity. These cells are astrocytes and microglia. The first cut off unnecessary connections between neurons, the second – they hunt for damaged cells and cellular debris. Most astrocytes are active in the area of more adult and often used compounds, which, in any case, probably require more maintenance – nothing dramatic. However, an increase in the activity of microphlogia macrophages in chronic nedosylchischikov causes great concern. Excessive activation of microglia is associated with Alzheimer's disease and other bad diseases. It has been shown that lack of sleep makes people vulnerable to dementia, so probably all these facts are related. What can I say? These are your all-night work not worth it.
Now let's throw in a little sensation: the scientists forced the mice to overeat with fatty food, directing the beams of lasers to their brain! And now seriously: scientists have discovered that the brain area called "zona incerta" (an indeterminate zone), when optogenetically stimulated, instantly causes mice to overeat the mouse equivalent of chips and sweets. When the stimulation stops, the animals return to a reasonable, normal diet. Regular stimulation during the week leads to the fact that animals begin to overeat constantly (they eat 35% of the daily intake for ten minutes) and gain weight. Since the previously undefined zone was not associated with food behavior at all, this discovery will help us better understand and treat eating disorders (perhaps even find a switch for binge eating). It can also help explain why people with Parkinson's disease after deep stimulation of the brain areas responsible for the motility and located close to the indeterminate zone, sometimes begin to abuse food.
And as soon as you decided that Ilona Mask and so affairs are already up to his neck, he announces the start of a new revolutionary program. This is Neuralink – a project to create a brain-computer interface (BCI) that helps people with disabilities connect the brain with AI and eventually can create a universal telepathy (greetings from Isaac Asimov!)
All Must work through a neural string, an ultrathin network unfolding in the brain after insertion, covering the entire bark with a set of electrodes that record, decode and wirelessly transmit brain signals. Neuralink team is going to simultaneously record the work of a million neurons (in the present time the best similar systems consist of 100 electrodes recording the work of 100 neurons, while the brain as a whole contains about 80 billion neurons). When it all works, we'll have Google Autocomplete in our heads, it will be possible to restore our eyesight, conduct cloud-based AI calculations in the head so that they are felt as part of the consciousness – and much more.
Sounds like a scientific And, in general, as long as it is true – with current BCI, surgical intervention is often required, they provide a very low speed of information transfer and are able to decode only very simple signals, like "I want to move my hand to the right" or "I'm looking at a certain Letter "(which, of course, is already nep Ojo – patients are able to control prostheses by thought, paralyzed people – contact with the outside world). Neuroshnok must overcome all these obstacles, be ultra-thin, ultra-small, biocompatible, able to unfold and cover the bark, and have greater bandwidth. In addition, for the time being we do not know exactly how the brain does the calculations, we do not know how to record neurons, etc., etc. – There are still many works to achieve the next big breakthrough.
Remember how you turned the tantrum at 15 when your mother decided that a tattoo on her face is not a good idea? Want to know why you no longer have such hysterics (hopefully) in adulthood? Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania have discovered one possible reason for this change. Apparently, age changes in the organization of the brain network serve as the basis for improvements in the performance of executive functions. When the brain grows up, its modular networks (visual network, attention network, etc.) are more strongly delimited from each other, but still interact well with each other. In fact, you develop specialized brain departments that communicate effectively with each other, and do not generate noise, which is difficult to understand. This has a positive effect on the process of decision-making, control of impulses and every other. Also, judging by everything, how well your executive functions develop (that is, the probability that you will get into hysterics or make the right choice) depends, at least in part, on how pronounced these modules are in your Brain. It is interesting to consider this factor as another biomarker of abnormal brain development or a risk factor for the appearance of mental illnesses.