And for us this is an occasion to recall the events of 1965 Year, when a man first went into outer space, and then ran away from the bears across the taiga (in fact, no).
The characters in action
Pavel Ivanovich Belyayev was born on June 26, 1925 in the village of Chelishchevo, which now belongs to the Vologda region. In 1942, after 10 classes in high school, Belyaev found himself a turner at the Sinarsky Pipe Plant, and in 1943 enlisted in the Soviet Army and went to the Yeisk Military Aviation School for pilots.
He participated in military operations with Japan as a fighter pilot, and then served in the Soviet Navy. In 1959, Belyaev graduated from the Air Force Academy. During the service, the future cosmonaut mastered U-2, UT-2, Yak-7B, Yak-9, Yak-11, La-11, MiG-15 and MiG-17, which flew more than 500 hours.
Aleksei Leonov was younger than his colleague by flight for 9 years. He was born in Siberia on May 30, 1934 and was the eighth child in the family. Father Leonov in 1937 was repressed, the family with a pregnant ninth child was kicked out of the house by his mother. Neighbors plundered the property of "enemies of the people". Leonov said in an interview in 2013: "My mother remembered, my neighbors took off my panties." The family moved to Kemerovo, and in 1939, when Leonova's father was rehabilitated, went to his place of work in Kaliningrad.
After graduating from high school in 1953, Leonov entered the 10th Military Aviation School for initial training of pilots in Kremenchug , And in 1957 – Chuguev Military Aviation School for pilots.
On January 5, 1959, the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a resolution with a decision on the selection and training of cosmonauts for the first space flight on the Vostok spacecraft. Officially, the detachment was named 1960: Air Force Group 1.
During the selection process, 3,461 potential candidates – fighter pilots – were considered. Their number was first reduced to 347 people to conduct interviews and initial medical examination, and then to 206 pilots who were admitted to the final stationary examination. 105 people did not qualify for medical requirements, and 72 refused to be cosmonauts. As a result, there are 29 people left. The Credentials Committee selected 20 of them.
Alexei Leonov was enlisted in the detachment among the first twelve men on March 7, 1960. Pavel Belyaev was included in the list on April 28, he was the oldest in the team – he was 34 years old. As part of the detachment, the future cosmonauts were trained for flights on the ships "Vostok" and "Voskhod".
Pavel Belyaev and Alexei Leonov
Ships of the type "East", on one of which Yuri Gagarin went into space, were single. "Sunrise" was another version of the same ship. From it removed the ejection seat to accommodate up to three ordinary. To ensure a soft landing, the landing vehicle was equipped with a solid-propellant brake motor, triggered before touching the ground on the altimeter signal.
Within the framework of this space program, the tasks of working out the interaction of the crew members during the flight were solved. "Voskhod-1" was the first flight of a multi-seater spacecraft and the first flight without spacesuits – so they saved space. The cosmonauts of Voskhod-2 had to put on all the same in their spacesuits, since they planned to go out into space in flight. Also with them, the astronauts took an inflatable lock chamber.
Placement of seats in the ships "Vostok" and "Voskhod", NASA archives
On February 1, 1965 the crew of the "Voskhod" -2 "was finally approved. The commander of the expedition was Pavel Belyaev. Pilot – Alexei Leonov. The substitutes were Viktor Gorbatko, Evgeny Khrunov and Dmitry Zaikin. Before the start of the spacesuits, they only put on the main crew and Khrunov, who could replace any member of the crew – both the pilot and the commander.
On March 18, 1965, "Voskhod-2" started from the Baikonur cosmodrome at 07:00 am GMT (or 10:00 Moscow time). The launch into orbit was conducted on a regular basis. At the first turn, the astronauts blew a lock chamber.
At the second turn, Belyaev opened the hatch from the console, Leonov in the suit went to the cell, Belyaev closed the hatch and began to depressurize. At 11:32:54 the commander opened the outer hatch, and the first man found himself in a cosmic vacuum.
Render of the Sunrise-2 with an inflated lock chamber, A Shlyadinsky
The spacewalk was a serious test for the body. The cosmonaut suffered from rapid heartbeat, the respiration rate was twice the normal, hyperthermia reached +38 ° C. Leonov burst into sweat. In the 1960s, the USSR was confident that an absolutely healthy person would feel normal in weightlessness. But any person in different ways perceives such loads, including mental ones, of which Tsiolkovsky spoke.
General Nikolai Kamanin, who was following the process from the Earth, wrote: "We watched him go on television, he smoothly" hovered "in space, waved to us first left, and then – right hand, several times overturned , Walked away and went to the ship. We saw him in the background of the Earth 3-5 meters from the ship. "
Today, the cosmonauts are trying to be closer to the hull of the ship, and then Leonov several times for the entire length of the 5.35-meter beam departed from the ship. Fal could barely manage to roll to return to the airlock.
But getting into the ship was not an easy task. For the mission in the NGO "Zvezda" they developed a spacesuit "Berkut", which supported within itself a pressure of 0.4 atmosphere. In space, the suit was swollen. In violation of all the rules, Leonov did not report on the situation, and arbitrarily lowered the pressure in the spacesuit almost twice, to 0.27 atm, and entered the lock not with his feet forward, but with his head.
A decrease in pressure could lead to caisson disease. The astronaut understood this, but he took a chance. He had no choice. Fortunately, Leonov was breathing pure oxygen, and there was practically no nitrogen in the body.
The hatch opened into the ship and consumed a large amount of its volume, so it was necessary to enter only the legs inside. Leonov had to do a somersault inside the lock: "I'm a hundred and ninety in a spacesuit, and a lock with a diameter of twenty meters, this had to be developed twice." As soon as the cosmonaut entered the ship, even before the entrance hatch closed, he removed his helmet and rubbed his eyes because of the sweat that had filled them.
On Earth Sergei Pavlovich Korolev asked Leonov why he went on violations. Leonov recalls: "Look here. I am reporting to you, I have problems. You begin to form a commission necessarily. They will start asking me. And I have five minutes left before entering the shadow and thirty minutes of life … Of course, they would start asking me how and what. And I'm already dead. " Then Korolev, as Leonov says, said: "And Lyosha is right."
According to the plan, after returning to board the astronaut, it was necessary to shoot the airlock. With this problems did not arise. But as a result of temperature deformations a gap formed in the hatch, and depressurization caused an increase in oxygen supply by the life support system. This could lead to an explosion. Leonov accidentally touched the air supply switch from the reserve cylinders, and in the next seven hours the leak was stopped due to reverse deformation, in fact, squeezing the body elements with excess pressure.
There were also difficulties for Pavel Belyaev in the flight. Already during the spacewalk Leonov noticed that the ship does not hold the orientation. Automation refused. Belyaev transferred the control to manual mode. It was impossible to steer the ship from the chair, so the commander unfastened, orientated the ship and prepared the brake motor, turned back into the armchair and buckled. Only after that the ship began to perform all the actions planned for planting.
The landing occurred in a snow-covered taiga 200 kilometers from Perm. In 2005, Leonov said: "We walked over Moscow, inclination 65. We had to sit on this turn, and we ourselves chose the area for landing – 150 km from Solikamsk with a 270-degree course, because there was a taiga. No enterprises, no power lines. They could have sat down in Kharkov, Kazan, Moscow, but it was dangerous. The version that we got there due to the violation of balancing is a complete nonsense. We ourselves chose the landing site, because it was safer and possible deviations in the engine's work shifted the landing point, too, to safe areas. Only in China it was impossible to sit down – then the relationship was very tense. As a result, at a speed of 28,000 km / h we sat just 80 km from our calculated point. This is a good result. And there were no reserve seats at that time. And they did not expect us there … "
Taiga is a dangerous place, in the Perm region there is a wolverine, there are bears and lynxes. Since the flight of Yuri Gagarin in the wearable emergency stock was a pistol Makarov. "All that could be done with the help of" Makarov "is to shoot himself," Aleksey Leonov said.
The first night the cosmonauts were sitting in the snow-covered taiga in their spacesuits, as they had no other clothes. To warm up, had to build a "clothing" from sporotoy from the shell of the ship screen-vacuum heat insulation and parachute lines. Nikolai Kamanin described the following events: "On March 20, early in the morning, a helicopter flew over the landing site:" I see two at the ship, one chop wood, another puts them in a fire, both are dressed in flight uniforms. " At 7:30 am, Colonel Sibiryakov landed from a Mi-4 helicopter (on a hovering of 1.5 meters) a mile and a half from the astronauts, with him a doctor Tumanov and a technician. At 8:30 they went on skis to the astronauts. In the same area, the helicopters landed a few more people who began clearing the site for the helicopter landing. "
Before the helicopter cosmonauts already got on skis together with rescuers. It is interesting in an artistic manner that these events are described in an article of 1980 published in Around the World.
] Return to Baikonur
Celebration of the cosmonauts PI Belyaev and AA Leonov in Vologda, Pavel Sergeev
Tribune of the Mausoleum: Valentina Tereshkova, Yuri Gagarin, Alexei Leonov, Pavel Belyaev. Photoarchive TASS
A monument with names of cosmonauts and Leonov's citation was erected on the landing site of the ship: "Only such a soft land on which people with a kind heart live can receive so gently the spaceship that went to Earth with Speed of 8 km / s. By its spirituality, energy, inner conviction, by the scope of the soul, you are above many peoples thriving in material well-being. You live a beautiful, Russian, northern life. THANK YOU FOR THIS! "
Leonov returned to space within 10 years as part of the Soyuz-19 expedition And made the first international space flight with docking with the American spacecraft "Apollo", where he shook hands with Thomas Stafford. Stafford will name his grandson in honor of Leonov – Alexei, and Leonov's granddaughter – Karina in honor of the daughter of Stafford.
Pavel Belyaev, unfortunately, has not lived to this point. On January 10, 1970, he died of peritonitis. The commander of "Apollo 15" David Scott on August 1, 1971, secretly from NASA, installed on the moon a sculpture "The Fallen Astronaut." Next to the 8.5-centimeter figure of the cosmonaut in the suit, made by artist Paul Van Heydonck, Scott placed a plaque bearing the names of eight American astronauts and six Soviet cosmonauts in alphabetical order. On one of the lines of the memorial plaque is Pavel Belyaev.
Today, 26 hours in orbit do not seem to be a very remarkable result, like 12 minutes in open space. But it was the first 12 minutes. Nobody knew what to expect from them. The number of unexpected turns and sharp moments that occurred during the flight, can envy many films. It would seem that you do not even need to write a script, take the stories of the participants of the event, arrange it in chronological order and start shooting. But the movie, based on real events, is done differently. It remains to wait for the premiere of the film, to watch it and then to draw some conclusions. 19455015